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Assessing and promoting civil and minority rights in South Africa.

[Source: GIGA Working Papers by Sören Scholvin.]

The second‐most powerful states in regional hierarchies – or “secondary powers” – can be expected to contest against hegemons. In this paper, I assess the power that secondary powers in sub‐Saharan Africa wield vis‐à‐vis South Africa and suggest that their intended and unintended contestation can be captured as hard balancing, soft balancing, rejection of followership, and disregard of leadership. Angola’s foreign policy is marked by a mix of these types of contestation and a recent shift towards soft balancing, which results from Angola’s increasing economic influence in some regional countries. Kenya might reject followership or even hard‐balance in economic affairs but has not done so yet. Nigerian–South African relations are characterised by a disregard of South African leadership, especially in security policy, and unintended economic soft balancing.

Read the paper here.

South Africa at a Glance
56 500 000 (mid 2017 estimate)
4.5% y/y in April 2018 (CPI) & +4.4 y/y in April 2018 (PPI)
294.84 in USD BIllion (December 2017)
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